Turner frontier thesis summary

Keiko Ida will be leading work on cross-cultural adaption and feasibility testing this autumn.

Turner frontier thesis summary

Turner frontier thesis summary

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. March Learn how and when to remove this template message Cable television programming is often divided between basic and premium television.

Basic cable networks are generally transmitted without any encryption or other scrambling Turner frontier thesis summary and thus anyone connected to the cable television system can receive the basic channel. Basic cable networks receive at least some funding through "per- subscriber fees ," fees paid by the cable television systems for the right to include the television network in its channel lineup.

Most though not all basic cable networks also include advertising to supplement the fees, since their programming costs are not usually covered by per-subscriber fees alone. Turner had contacted Howard H. Hubbard to set up a cable network from a satellite feed when Turner wanted to watch his Atlanta Braves baseball team from the Hood Yacht Club in Marblehead, Massachusetts.

The practice has since been restricted by the FCC, although seven stations that began superstation coverage prior to the ban including WPCH are covered under a grandfather clause. The second basic cable network, and the first to operate without a license from the FCC, was the CBN Satellite Service, a Christian television service launched by televangelist Pat Robertson in April as the television ministry of his Christian Broadcasting Networkthat was delivered by satellite as a more efficient way to distribute the programming.

Because cable television carries more bandwidth than broadcast television 10 to 20 times as many channelsthere is channel capacity for more specialty channels catering to particular television market demographics or interests.

Also, because cable television networks rely much less, or in some cases not at all, on revenue from television commercialsthey can feature programming such as specialty sports television or programming in foreign languages that draws much smaller viewer numbers than what broadcast television networks would find acceptable.

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Turner frontier thesis summary Learn how and when to remove this template message The origins of premium cable lie in two areas: In more recent years, premium cable refers to networks — such as Home Box Office HBOCinemaxShowtimeThe Movie ChannelFlixStarzMoviePlex and Epix — that scramble or encrypt their signals so that only those paying additional monthly fees to their cable system can legally view them via the use of a converter box.

Premium services have the discretion to offer the service unencrypted to a certain number of participating cable providers during a short-term free preview period to allow those who do not receive a premium service to sample its programming, in an effort for subscribers to the participant provider to consider obtaining a subscription to the offered service to continue viewing it following the preview period.

HBO was the first true premium cable or "pay-cable" network as well as the first television network intended for cable distribution on a regional or national basis; however, there were notable precursors to premium cable in the pay-television industry that operated during the s and s with a few systems lingering untilas well as some attempts by free-the-air broadcasters during the s and s that ultimately folded as their subscriber bases declined amid viewer shifts to receiving premium television content delivered by cable providers that had begun operating in metropolitan areas throughout that period.

InHBO became the first cable network to be delivered nationwide by satellite transmission. Although such conversions are rare, some present-day basic cable channels have originated as premium services, including the Disney Channel from toAMC from to and Bravo from to ; some of these services eventually switched to an advertiser-supported model after transitioning to an unencrypted structure.

Other fledgling premium services such as early HBO spin-off efforts Take Two and FestivalHome Theater Network and Spotlight have lasted for a few years, only to fail due to the inability to compete against established premium services that had broader distribution and higher subscriber totals.

In contrast, while there are no FCC rules that apply to content on basic cable networks, many basic cable networks self-regulate their program content because of viewer and advertiser expectations, particularly with regard to profane language and nudity.

In recent years though, some basic cable networks have begun to relax their self-imposed restrictions, particularly for programs aired in late night or the waning hours of prime time.

Some networks have also carried uncut versions of films that originally received an "R" rating for their theatrical release in the late night hours.

With the number of commercial-free basic cable channels dwindling since the s, Turner Classic Movies TCM is presently among the only such channels to offer uncensored program content; TCM has also aired uncut prints of theatrical films that have featured nudity, sexual content, violence and profanity, as had the now-ad-supported SundanceTV and IFCthe former of which began as a premium service spun off from Showtime.

Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. May See also: Analog technology allowed cable providers to offer standardized subscription packages using low-pass filters and notch filters.

A low-pass filter lets lower frequency signals pass while removing higher frequency signals. Using such filtering, the cable provider offered "economy basic" subscriptions local channels only- these appear at the lowest frequency signals, denoted by the lowest channel numbers and "basic" subscriptions local channels plus a handful of national channels with frequencies just higher than the local stations.

Notch filters were used to filter out a "notch" of channels from an analog cable signal for example, channels could be "notched" out and the subscriber still receives channels below 45 and above This allowed cable providers to open standardized ranges of premium channels to the subscriber, but notch filtering was not a feasible way to offer each subscriber their own individual choice of channels.

Each change an analog cable consumer made in their subscription would then require an additional home visit to reprogram their set-top box. Currently, digital cable and satellite delivery systems with standardized subscriptions are providing an opportunity for networks that service niche and minority audiences to reach millions of households, and potentially, millions of viewers.

They fear it will reduce the overall choice of viewing content, making their service less appealing to the consumer. Digital cable television provides many more television channels over the same available bandwidthby converting cable channels to a digital signal and then compressing the signal.

This means they offer a certain number of analog channels via their basic cable service with additional channels being made available via their digital cable service.Central Pacific Railroad construction in the 's.

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Stereoviews, engravings, maps, and documents are treasures of western Americana that illustrate the history of the first transcontinental railroad, built from Sacramento, California over the Sierra Nevada mountains, the to end of track at the Golden Spike Ceremony at Promontory, Utah where the rails were joined on May 10, with the Union.

In this lesson, we'll learn about daily life in the Wild West during the s. We'll explore the central themes and trends associated with the culture of the American West.

Cable television first became available in the United States in , with subscription services following in Data by SNL Kagan shows that as of about % of all American homes subscribe to basic cable television services. Most cable viewers in the U.S.

reside in the suburbs and tend to be middle class; cable television is less .

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In this lesson, we'll learn about daily life in the Wild West during the s. We'll explore the central themes and trends associated with the culture of the American West. I was at the Providence police headquarters this summer when I saw an unusual sight — a cop in a motorized wheelchair.

I wondered why . Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years. We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state.

Cable television in the United States - Wikipedia