In a broad sense, calligraphy is merely hand-writing, a tool for recording and communicating; but in the Arab world it is an art, an art with a remarkable history; a form with great masters and revered traditions. Beauty alone distinguishes calligraphy from ordinary handwriting; writing may express ideas, but to the Arab it must also express the broader dimension of aesthetics.
See Article History Calligraphy, the art of beautiful handwriting. It implies a sure knowledge of the correct form of letters—i. Calligraphic work, as art, need not be legible in the usual sense of the word. The Newberry Library, Gift of Robert Williams, In the Middle East and East Asia, calligraphy by long and exacting tradition is considered a major art, equal to sculpture or painting.
In Western culture the plainer Greek- and Latin-derived alphabets and the spread of literacy have tended to make handwriting in principle an art that anyone can practice.
Nonetheless, after the introduction of printing in Europe in the midth century, a clear distinction arose between handwriting and more elaborate forms of scripts and lettering.
Writing books from the 16th century through the present day have continued to distinguish between ordinary handwriting and the more decorative calligraphy. Courtesy of the Columbia University Libraries, New York It has often been assumed that the printing process ended the manuscript tradition.
This is not quite true: Furthermore, certain types of publications, such as musical scores, scientific notation, and other specialized or small-audience works, continued to be handwritten well into the 19th century. Thus, although handwritten books could not be reproduced in quantity or with complete uniformity, they did survive the introduction of printing.
Printing and handwriting began to influence each other: Two-page spread from Geoffroy Tory's Book of Hours Library of Congress, Washington, D. Early Semitic writing During the 2nd millennium bce, various Semitic peoples at the eastern end of the Mediterranean were experimenting with alphabetic writing.
Between and bce, alphabetic signs found in scattered sites showed a correspondence of form and provided material for sound translations. Bodies of writing from this period are fragmented: Few of these are celebrated in terms of aesthetic value.
One interesting set of Semitic inscriptions was discovered in at an ancient mining site on the Sinai Peninsula.
Most of the early Semitic alphabetic signs were similarly derived from word signs of more ancient vintage. The several Semitic peoples in the Middle East area spoke languages that were closely related, and this enabled them to use the same set of alphabetic signs. After some experimentation the alphabet was reduced to 22 signs for consonants.
There were no vowel signs. The tribes of Canaan HebrewsPhoeniciansand Aramaeans were important in the development of alphabetic writing, and all seemed to be employing the alphabet by bce. The Phoenicians, living along a mile kilometre strip on the Mediterranean, made the great sea their second home, giving the alphabet to Greeks in the mutual trading area and leaving inscriptions in many sites.
One of the finest Phoenician inscriptions exists on a bronze cup from Cyprus called the Baal of Lebanon in the Louvre, Paris dating from about bce. The so-called Moabite Stone also in the Louvrewhich dates from about bce, has an inscription that is also a famous example of early Semitic writing.
Phoenician writingPhoenician text inscribed on stone, 1st millennium bce. The pen-written forms of the Old Hebrew alphabet are best preserved in the 13th-century-ce documents of the Samaritan sects. The exile suffered by the Israelites — bce dealt a heavy blow to the Hebrew languagesince, after their return from exile, Aramaic was the dominant language of the area, and Hebrew existed as a second and scholarly language.
Aramaic pen-written documents began to appear in the 5th century bce and were vigorous interpretations of inscription letters. Typically, in the surviving documents, the pen was cut wide at the tip to produce a pronounced thick and thin structure to the line of letters.
Then, too, there was a tendency to hold these strong horizontals on the top line, with trailing descenders finding a typical length, long or short on the basis of ancient habits. The lamed form, which has the same derivation as the Western L, resembles the latter and can be picked out in early Aramaic pen hands by its characteristic long ascender.
This early script may be seen in the famed Dead Sea Scrolls discovered in These scrolls are associated with a group of dissident Jews who founded a religious commune on the northwestern shore of the Dead Sea about bce.Order of Assassins or simply Assassins is the common name used to refer to an Islamic sect formally known as the Nizari ashio-midori.com on texts from Alamut, their grand master Hassan-i Sabbah tended to call his disciples Asāsīyūn (أساسيون, meaning "people who are faithful to the foundation [of the faith]"), but some foreign travelers [who?] .
ashio-midori.com is the place to go to get the answers you need and to ask the questions you want. SAGA: The word comes from the Old Norse term for a "saw" or a "saying."Sagas are Scandinavian and Icelandic prose narratives about famous historical heroes, notable families, or the exploits of kings and warriors.
The novel is a genre of fiction, and fiction may be defined as the art or craft of contriving, through the written word, representations of human life that instruct or divert or ashio-midori.com various forms that fiction may take are best seen less as a number of separate categories than as a continuum or, more accurately, a cline, with some such brief form as the anecdote at one end of the scale and.
Articles in this section: On this page, there is a selection of articles from the Journal of the Ibn 'Arabi Society. Although these do not represent an analytical treatment of Ibn 'Arabi's teachings, they do reflect the breadth of subjects in his writing.
The great irony of human intelligence is that the only species on Earth capable of reason, complex-problem solving, long-term planning and consciousness understands so little about the organ that makes it all possible—the brain.
—Amanda Bower, Time, 20 Aug. ; The great irony of anthracite is that, tough as it is to light, once you get it lit it's .