The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and its resultant conflict.
Franco-Prussian War A French propaganda poster from is captioned with an 18th-century quote: The deputies then selected General Louis-Jules Trochu to serve as its president. After the French surrender in Januarythe provisional Government of National Defence disbanded, and national elections were called with the aim of creating a new French government.
French territories occupied by Prussia at this time did not participate. The resulting conservative National Assembly elected Adolphe Thiers as head of a provisional government, nominally "head of the executive branch of the Republic pending a decision on the institutions of France".
Due to the revolutionary and left-wing political climate that prevailed in the Parisian population, the right-wing government chose the royal palace of Versailles as its headquarters.
The new government negotiated a peace settlement with the newly proclaimed German Empire: To prompt the Prussians to leave France, the government passed a variety of financial laws, such as the controversial Law of Maturities, to pay reparations.
In Paris, resentment against the government built and from late March — MayParis workers and National Guards revolted and established the Paris Communewhich maintained a radical left-wing regime for two months until its bloody suppression by the Thiers government in May The following repression of the communards would have disastrous consequences for the labor movement.
Parliamentary monarchy[ edit ] Composition of the national Assembly — The French legislative election ofheld in the aftermath of the collapse of the regime of Napoleon III, resulted in a monarchist majority in the French National Assembly that was favourable to making a peace agreement with Prussia.
The " Legitimists " in the National Assembly supported the candidacy of a descendant of King Charles Xthe last monarch from the senior line of the Bourbon Dynastyto assume the French throne: Consequently, in the throne was offered to the Comte de Chambord.
Compromise on this was impossible if the nation were to be made whole again. The general population, however, was unwilling to abandon the Tricolor flag. Monarchists therefore resigned themselves to wait for the death of the aging, childless Chambord, when the throne could be offered to his more liberal heir, the Comte de Paris.
A "temporary" republican government was therefore established. Chambord lived on untilbut by that time, enthusiasm for a monarchy had faded, and as a result the Comte de Paris was never offered the French throne. The term ordre moral "moral order" was applied to the policies of the early governments of the Third Republic in reference to the bloody suppression of the Paris Commune, whose political and social innovations were viewed as morally degenerate by large conservative segments of the French population.
At its head was a President of the Republic. A two-chamber parliament consisting of a directly-elected Chamber of Deputies and an indirectly-elected Senate was created, along with a ministry under the President of the Council prime ministerwho was nominally answerable to both the President of the Republic and the legislature.
Throughout the s, the issue of whether a monarchy should replace the republic dominated public debate. In France, children were taught in school not to forget the lost regions of Alsace-Lorrainewhich were coloured in black on maps.
On 16 Maywith public opinion swinging heavily in favour of a republic, the monarchist President of the Republic, Patrice de MacMahon made one last desperate attempt to salvage the monarchical cause by dismissing the republican prime minister Jules Simon and appointing the monarchist leader Albert, duc de Broglieto office.
He then dissolved parliament and called a general election for the following October. Indeed, it was not until Charles de Gaulle, 80 years later, that a President of France next unilaterally dissolved parliament. The prospect of a monarchical restoration died definitively after the republicans gained control of the Senate on 5 January The Opportunist Republicans[ edit ] Further information: Opportunist Republicans Following the 16 May crisis inLegitimists were pushed out of power, and the Republic was finally governed by republicans referred to as Opportunist Republicans for their support of moderate social and political changes in order to establish the new regime firmly.
From that time onward, public education was no longer under the exclusive control of the Catholic congregations. Only a few crowns, their precious gems replaced by coloured glass, were kept.
An enormously popular general, he won a series of elections in which he would resign his seat in the Chamber of Deputies and run again in another district. With his base of support in the working districts of Paris and other cities, plus rural traditionalist Catholics and royalists, he promoted an aggressive nationalism aimed against Germany.
The elections of September marked a decisive defeat for the Boulangists. The fall of Boulanger severely undermined the political strength of the conservative and royalist elements within France; they would not recover their strength until Panama scandals The Panama scandals of involved the enormous cost of a failed attempt to build the Panama Canal.
Due to disease, death, inefficiency, and widespread corruption, the Panama Canal Company handling the massive project went bankrupt, with millions in losses.
It is regarded as the largest monetary corruption scandal of the 19th century. French income levels were higher than German income levels despite France having less natural resources, while taxation and government spending was lower in France than in Germany. France lagged behind Bismarckian Germany, as well as Great Britain, in developing a welfare state with public health, unemployment insurance and national old age pension plans.
There was an accident insurance law for workers inand inFrance created a national pension plan.
Unlike Germany or Britain, the programs were much smaller — for example, pensions were a voluntary plan. Germany set up vigorous measures of public hygiene and public sanatoria, but France let private physicians handle the problem.Good Reads Books which I have read and recommend.
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Netherlands - Cultural life: The cultural life of the Netherlands is varied and lively. Dutch painting and crafts are world renowned, and Dutch painters are among the greatest the world has ever known. The Dutch themselves take great pride in their cultural heritage, and the government is heavily involved in subsidizing the arts, while abjuring direct artistic control of cultural enterprises.
The Napoleonic Wars (–) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United ashio-midori.com wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and its resultant conflict.
The French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars represented continuity in European diplomacy from the eighteenth to the nineteenth century, but witnessed considerable change in the way that war was waged.
The influence of Revolutionary and Napoleonic France depended on the nature of its relationship with the other European states.
Satellite states were transformed considerably, whereas allied and. The French Revolution. Beginning in , France produced the most significant of the.
eighteenth-century revolutions. In some ways it was remarkably similar to the.
W hen you hear the name Napoleon, it’s almost always connected with war. However, there was more to his life than the battlefield; an aspect remains that is too often neglected.
A state cannot survive solely on military victories; the river of loot that originally flowed in from conquests eventually runs dry (as it did for the Roman Empire), the land itself becomes too damaged to be of much.