Good ideas for biology research papers

Technical Experiments on Humans 6.

Good ideas for biology research papers

A recent study of the effectiveness of homeopathy reported here involved interviewing patients to determine if their health improved after homeopathic treatment. It is unknown what percentage of people would have reported positive health changes without treatment.

And most treatments have placebo effects -- that is why blood-letting was popular for thousands of years.

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Recipients of biologically ineffective treatments may claim that "it works" because of placebo effects, but this is not evidence of a unique biological effect.

The response of a treatment group must be compared to the response of a sham-treated group both groups and clinicians being unaware of which group is recieving which treatment. Also in this example, it would be important to have clear outcome measures, not just reports of generally feeling better.

A discussion of this study is available here. Is he justified in his claim? And the smaller the sample sizes used in the experiments, the greater the likelihood that their estimated treatment effects are not representative of what would be obtained with large sample sizes. Critique this evidence and suggest a better test of this claim.

An investigative design must rule out coincidence. Testimonials are not useful as evidence because a positive results may be coincidence or a placebo effect.

A test of the claim requires a large number of subjects replication who are randomly assigned to either touch or a sham treatment control group such as an inert pill. The outcome measure is frequency of headaches. It certainly works for me.

My headaches now disappear within a few hours of taking the pills. This was seen with the drug bucindolol in treating heart failure. Therefore the question in this case is whether the product is better than placebo in this one person.

The "target of inference" from any evidence is this one single person, not a population. That rules out replication.

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However, randomization is possible. The outcome measure is headache duration. The treatment tank was selected in a random manner. Critique this experiment based on this brief description. What is the greatest flaw in the investigative design? Lack of clear outcome measure.

Lack of appropriate controls. It is the tanks that must be replicated Hurlbert However, this same drug increases the risk of uterine cancer by percent.

How would you decide if the drug should be approved? The incidence of breast cancer is about 80 perpopulation. The incidence of uterine cancer is about 15 perArguments that homeopathy is pseudoscience cite the fact that scientists have been unable to demonstrate that water has a memory.

They also cite the failure of well-designed randomized controlled trials to show any value beyond a placebo effect. An argument in favor of the effectiveness of homeopathy is that there are three thousand practicing homeopaths in Great Britain.

Is this good evidence of the efficacy of homeopathy? The number of proponents has no relation to determining whether or not something works.

What feature of science distinguishes it from the realm of religion and the supernatural? It does not deal with supernatural claims which are by definition untestable.

Good ideas for biology research papers

What type of evidence would you like to see prior to accepting this claim? Provide details of an investigative design Biologists hypothesize that whales evolved from land-dwelling animals now extinct mesonychids.

How might this hypothesis be tested? A web page promoting the health benefits of "touch therapy" claims that "Healing Touch provides an energetic liver cleanse.

Natural history programs commonly attribute adaptive value to animal colors. For example, the snake species Thamnophis elegans occurs in two color phases:The ultimate guide to writing perfect research papers, essays, dissertations or even a thesis.

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