Jesu Arockiaraj Transcriptome analysis and molecular characterization of selected innate immune genes induced by Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome EUS causing pathogens in Snakehead Murrrel Channastriatus Minakshi Guha Chowdhuri Evaluation of Polyherbal formulation advocated for the prevention and management of Obesity and associated complications Uday Pratab Dr. Thyagarajan Morinda Citrifolia Linn. Vanitha Protective effect of Morin against high glucose-induced Beta cell apopotosis and Streptozotocin — induced diabetes mellitus S.
Rabban was also exempted from all payments made by other settlers in the town to the king, and in-turn, all the rights of other settlers in the town were extended to him. The council prescribed a punishment for those who obstructed the Anandapuram temple functionaries or pilfered away temple properties and prevented the temple rituals.
In addition to paying a fine, the offenders would forfeit their place in the assembly and their right to protection from the Eranadu Nizhal warriors. Fine is prescribed for the violation of the rules. The Uralar are authorised to take over from Pattavalan officer in charge of collection in case of obstruction.
It closes with the statement that it was "issued with the knowledge of Venadu, Odanadu, Eranadu and Valluvanadu"   Manigramam was a famous merchant guild active in southern India and south-east Asia organised by native Indians.
Some historians are of the view that the Eradi was in fact a favourite of the last Kodungallur Chera king as he was at the forefront of the battles with the Chola — Pandya forces in south Kerala.
The Eradi seems to have led the Chera army to victory. The king therefore granted him, as a mark of favour, a small tract of land on the sea-coast [Kozhikode] in addition to his hereditary possessions [Eralanadu province]. The Eradis subsequently moved their seat to the coastal "marshy lands" and established the city of Kozhikode.
According to the inscription, the king, residing at Panainkavu Palace at Kurakkeni Kollam, sitting in council with Arya Brahmins, the Four Brahmin Ministers, the Leader of the Thousand Nairs, the Leader of the Six Hundred Nairs of Venadu, Punthurakkon Manavikrama - the chief of Eranadu, and other feudatories, made prayaschittam for some offence against the Arya Brahmins by donating paddy for daily feeding the Brahmins and leasing out a Cherikkal for that purpose to Venadu chief Kumaran Udaya Varma.
The Eradi marched with his Nairs towards Panniyankara and besieged the Polarthiri at his base, resulting in a year-long standoff. The Eradi was unsuccessful, and then he propitiated the Bhagavatibribed the followers of Polarthiri and even the consort of the ruler of Polanadu and won them to his side.
Learning of this treachery Polarthiri fled from Kozhikode. The Eradi emerged victorious and shifted his seat from Nediyiruppu to Kozhikode - then also called "Thrivikramapuram".
The Eradis built a fort Koyil Kotta at a place called "Velapuram" port to safeguard their new interests. The Samoothiri became one of the most powerful chiefs in Kerala. The rulers of Payyormala, Kurumbranaduand other Nair chiefs on the suburbs of Kozhikode also acknowledged the supremacy of Kozhikode.
There were battles between Kozhikode and Kurumbranadu for a coastal region called Payyanadu. Payyanadu was a part of Kurumbranadu in early times, and was eventually given as a "royal gift" to Kozhikode.
Kozhikode easily overran the Kurumbranadu warriors in the battle and Kurumbranadu had to sue for peace by surrendering Valisseri. Inscription specifically mentions the word "Punturakkon" The ruler of Kozhikode next turned his attention to the valley of Perar. Large parts of the valley was then ruled by Valluvakkonathiri, the ancient hereditary chief of Valluvanadu.
The principal objective of Kozhikode was the capture the sacred settlement of Thirunavaya. Soon the Samoothiris found themselves intervened in the so-called kurmatsaram between Nambudiris of Panniyurkur and Chovvarakur.
In the most recent event, the Nambudiris from Thirumanasseri Nadu had assaulted and burned the nearby rival village. The rulers of Valluvanadu and Perumpadappu came to help the Chovvaram and raided Panniyur simultaneously.
Thirumanasseri Nadu was overran by its neighbours on south and east. The Thirumanasseri Nambudiri appealed to the ruler of Kozhikode for help, and promised to cede the port of Ponnani to Kozhikode as the price for his protection.
Kozhikode, looking for such an opportunity, gladly accepted the offer. Meanwhile, another force under the Eralppadu commanded a fleet across the sea and landed at Ponnani and later moved to Thirumanasseri, with intention to descend on Thirunavaya from the south with help of the warriors of the Thirumanasseri Brahmins.
Eralppadu also prevented the warriors of Perumpadappu joining Valluvanadu forces. The Muslim merchants and commanders at Ponnani supported the Kozhikode force with food, transport and provisions.If you are an R blogger yourself you are invited to add your own R content feed to this site (Non-English R bloggers should add themselves- here).
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