Social Movements Race and Ethnicity Defined The term race refers to groups of people who have differences and similarities in biological traits deemed by society to be socially significant, meaning that people treat other people differently because of them. For instance, while differences and similarities in eye color have not been treated as socially significant, differences and similarities in skin color have. Although some scholars have attempted to establish dozens of racial groupings for the peoples of the world, others have suggested four or five. An example of a racial category is Asian or Mongoloidwith its associated facial, hair color, and body type features.
All rights reserved This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. In spite of significant advances in the diagnosis and treatment of most chronic diseases, there is evidence that racial and ethnic minorities tend to receive lower quality of care than nonminorities and that, patients of minority ethnicity experience greater morbidity and mortality from various chronic diseases than nonminorities.
Three studies published in this issue of the journal provide new insight to the sources of and contributing factors to racial and ethnic disparities in health care. In the first study, Trivedi and Ayanian 2 conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 54, respondents to the California Health Interview Survey to assess the relationship between perceptions of health care discrimination and use of health services.
Those that reported discrimination were less likely to receive some preventive care services; however, adjusting for perceived discrimination did not eliminate the observed racial, gender, and insurance disparities in receipt of preventive care.
The second study by Huang et al. The factor structure of the PHQ-9 was consistent across ethnic groups although there was evidence of differential item functioning for some items. The authors concluded that the PHQ-9 measures a common concept of depression and is an effective detection and monitoring tool for depression in diverse populations.
The third study by Groeneveld et al.
Respondents answered questions about general innovativeness i. There were no significant racial differences in general innovativeness, but whites had higher medical innovativeness and were more likely to accept new prescription drugs than blacks.
Although the findings of these studies are highly relevant, there are inherent limitations in most research studies on ethnic differences that need to be highlighted.
There is good evidence that socioeconomic position is a stronger determinant of health-related outcomes than race. The study of racial variations in health is driven by a genetic model that assumes that race is a valid biological category, that the genes that determine race are linked with the genes that determine health, and that the health of a population is determined predominantly by biological factors.
Methods for collecting data on race include self-report, direct observation, proxy report, and extraction from records. In general, self-reported race is most reliable and should be the preferred method. However, with the increase in the number of people that belong to multiple racial categories, it is increasingly difficult to classify individuals into 1 race category, which further complicates the interpretation of race effects in research studies.
Ethnicity is another variable that is commonly used in studies on health disparities. The Office of Management and Budget OMB has defined minimum standards for maintaining, collecting, and presenting data on race and ethnicity.
The concept of ethnicity is an attempt to further differentiate racial groups; however, like race, it carries its own historical, political, and social baggage.
In spite of these limitations, ethnicity when combined with race provides more information as long as researchers define their construction of it and justify its validity, reliability, and consistency.
Acculturation is another concept related to culture that is typically used to explain ethnic disparities in health outcomes. Acculturation as a predictive or explanatory variable is based on the assumption that culturally based knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs cause people to behave in certain ways and make specific health choices.
Studies that infer that certain health behaviors or outcomes differ by race, ethnicity, culture, or degrees of acculturation may be misleading because they rarely account for the distinct differences within racial or ethnic groups or cultures.
For example, blacks that live in California may have very different cultural values from those that live in the Southeast so beliefs and perceptions about health care discrimination may be poles apart. Similarly, blacks from the Caribbean Islands or the continent of Africa who are classified as blacks for research purposes have distinct cultural values that are different from those of blacks who were born and raised in America.
Such obvious differences in beliefs, values, and practices are not accounted for with the current classification of race and ethnicity. It is crucial that limitations in the definitions, measurement, and classification of the concepts of race, ethnicity, and culture are recognized as inferences are drawn from studies on health disparities.
Future studies on the relationship among race, ethnicity, culture, or acculturation and health outcomes need to go beyond just showing an association between these variables and health outcomes to providing a causal pathway for any such association.
The 3 studies published in this issue of the journal raise interesting points.
Second, that lack of medical innovativeness may be a barrier to adoption of new technology in blacks and may explain observed differences in utilization of innovative medical technologies.
As already discussed, results of these studies need to be interpreted with caution and put in the appropriate context of the conceptual limitations of the measurement and definition of race and ethnicity in the United States.
Nevertheless, the results of these studies underscore the need to continue funding research on understanding racial and ethnic differences in health outcomes.
As the United States becomes more diverse, there will be increased need to establish the validity and reliability of constructs and instruments across racial, ethnic, and cultural groups.The view that one race is biologically different from another rose out of society's grasp for power and authority over other ethnic groups.
This did not only happen in the United States but around the world as well.
Society created race to create hierarchies in which the majority would prosper most. A study from Harvard, Brown and the University of Missouri-Kansas City, “The Impact of Race and Ethnicity, Immigration and Political Context on Participation in American Electoral Politics,” analyzes national survey data between and to understand how various factors correlate with political participation rates among minorities.
Essay on Describe the Effects of the Expansion of Race and Ethnicity on United States Society. • Describe race and ethnicity as social constructions, and how they are • Identify the persistence of race in modern society. Introduction to Sociology: the United States is an example for other nations in how they treat their minority groups.
As you proceed in this chapter. Race and ethnicity effect that those persons who are different from the majority in a society tend to be more likely to leave, to be less satisfied and less psychologically dedicated.
This connection that diversity of racial and ethnic as well as group and organizational perspective outcomes is complex, with suitable variables of exhibiting a .
Describe the effects of the expansion of race and ethnicity on United States society. Because I was raised around the military community, I have been exposed to many different races and cultures.
When I married, we were a military family for approximately eight additional years.