On the original homeland of Ceratopteris Brong.
The effects of increasing spore density in detecting higher percentages of sexually expressed gametes. The Ceratopteris genus is a model plant system in allowing the study of life and reproductive cycles of spores, allowing for spore to gamete cellular and physical observation.
The triangle water fern, Ceratopteris richardii, provided for visual identification of this transition. Spores of different densities were inoculated, cultured, and observed in germination and sexual expression.
We estimated higher spore densities increase percentages of sexually expressed gametes, male and hermaphrodite; and concluded that spore density has a direct effect on germination and sexual expression numbers.
The ability to observe the spore to gamete transition leads to opportunity in manipulation of gametes for biological studies related to vascular plants. The model use of the homosporous Ceratopteris richardii C-Fern provides for high accessibility and understanding of its life and reproductive cycles, both haploid and diploid 2, 3.
The life and reproductive cycles of the sporophyte are easily observable under a compound microscope; and volume harvesting and culturing of spores for experimental studies are relatively easy due to the quick life cycle of the Ceratopteris at days or less 4.
Spore life and reproductive cycle summary consists of spore germination, gametophyte differentiation, pheromone antheridiogen sexual differentiation, embryonic development, through to spore maturation Fig. Male or hermaphrodite gametes, of the Ceratopteris, are determined by the pheromone antheridiogen or ACE.
This pheromone is responsible for stimulating the determination of male gametes and is secreted from the hermaphrodite gametes. This allows for a ratio of males to hermaphrodite gametes to vary depending on the spore density Fig 3, 4 5.
We estimated that higher spore densities will generate higher amounts of gametes and sexually expressed gametes, several spore densities were cultured to ascertain the percentages of gamete production.
The higher the spore density, the increased amount in the germination rate of gametes; allowing for volume culturing, harvesting, and manipulation of gametes for sexual expression in biological studies 2. The initial week, six different densities of C-fern spore medium were inoculated into six separate Petri dishes, labeled A-F, with A containing the highest C-fern spore density.
Upon inoculation, each of the Petri dishes were sampled for spore density by using a dissecting microscope, and spore densities were recorded in Table 1. This procedure was repeated during several laboratory sessions. The second week, it was discovered that there was contamination exposure within the source vials of spore density medium, after identifying evidence of contamination within the inoculated Petri dishes.
The third week specific matched groups of Petri dishes, identified as having no visual indication of the contamination, were then collected and analyzed for the experiment.
The C-fern spores were observed and visually identified, using a compound microscope at times magnification, to identify the developing gametophytes. The dissection microscope was then used to visually identify the number of germinating gametophytes, and their numbers were then recorded into Table 1.
Upon the fourth week, the gametophytes were visually identified for variances in sexual development and expression, using a compound microscope at times magnification.
Individual quantities of both mature hermaphroditic gametophytes and mature male gametophytes were then recorded in Table 1.C-Fern,a specially derived strain of the tropical homosporous fern, Ceratopteris richardii offers a dynamic approach to teaching many basic aspects of plant biology using hands-on activities and inquiry-based investigations and independent student-initiated research.
The effects of light on sex determination in gametophytes of the fern Ceratopteris The wild-type spores of Ceratopteris richardii were illuminated for 45 h under Abscisic acid blocks antheridiogen-induced antheridium formation in gametophytes of the fern Ceratopteris.
Can J Bot – Google Scholar. Hickok LG, Warne. The Effects of Sugars and Ethylene on Apospory and Regeneration in Ceratopteris richardii.
regeneration in the fern Ceratopteris richardii. Spores were inoculated at a density of - Plasma membrane-anchored chloroplasts are necessary for the gravisensing system of Ceratopteris richardii prothalli.
Authors; Authors and affiliations; Hiroyuki Kamachi; Inoue H () The effects of light on sex determination in gametophytes of the fern Ceratopteris richardii.
As an homosporous fern, Ceratopteris has two independent, autotrophic phases: a developmentally simple haploid gametophyte and a vascular diploid sporophyte.
The gametophyte phase, which develops after germination of the single-celled spore, can be cultured axenically on a simple inorganic nutrient medium. C-Fern Paper x. Uploaded by JessicaCheng. Related Interests.
Spore; Biological Interactions; C-Fern Paper. Jessica Cheng Introduction: The C-fern (Ceratopteris richardii) is an aquatic to semiaquatic plant in the Ptendaceae family (Hickok et al., ).
It has a short life cycle and develops into a mature gametophyte in.